5 things everyone gets wrong about artificial intelligence and what it means for our future

Artificial Intelligence, Technology, Business, Innovation
The humanoid robot AILA (artificial intelligence lightweight android) operates a switchboard during a demonstration by the German research centre for artificial intelligence at the CeBit computer fair in Hanover March 5, 2013. REUTERS/Fabrizio Bensch

Luis Perez-Brava, MIT Innovation Program

Artificial Intelligence, Luis Perez-Brava, Innovation
Luis Perez-Brava is a Research Scientist at MIT’s School of Engineering. Alex Kingsbury

There are a lot of myths out there about artificial intelligence (AI).

In June, Alibaba founder Jack Ma said AI is not only a massive threat to jobs but could also spark World War III. Because of AI, he told CNBC, in 30 years we’ll work only 4 hours a day, 4 days a week.

Recode founder Kara Swisher told NPR’s “Here and Now” that Ma is “a hundred percent right,” adding that “any job that’s repetitive, that doesn’t include creativity, is finished because it can be digitized” and “it’s not crazy to imagine a society where there’s very little job availability.”

She even suggested only eldercare and childcare jobs will remain because they require “creativity” and “emotion”—something Swisher says AI can’t provide yet.

I actually find that all hard to imagine. I agree it has always been hard to predict new kinds of jobs that’ll follow a technological revolution, largely because they don’t just pop up. We create them. If AI is to become an engine of revolution, it’s up to us to imagine opportunities that will require new jobs. Apocalyptic predictions about the end of the world as we know it are not helpful.

Common confusion

So, what may be the biggest myth—Myth 1: AI is going to kill our jobs—is simply not true.

Ma and Swisher are echoing the rampant hyperbole of business and political commentators and even many technologists—many of whom seem to conflate AI, robotics, machine learning, Big Data, and so on. The most common confusion may be about AI and repetitive tasks. Automation is just computer programming, not AI. When Swisher mentions a future automated Amazon warehouse with only one human, that’s not AI.

We humans excel at systematizing, mechanizing, and automating. We’ve done it for ages. It takes human intelligence to automate something, but the automation that results isn’t itself “intelligence”—which is something altogether different. Intelligence goes beyond most notions of “creativity” as they tend to be applied by those who get AI wrong every time they talk about it. If a job lost to automation is not replaced with another job, it’s lack of human imagination to blame.

In my two decades spent conceiving and making AI systems work for me, I’ve seen people time and again trying to automate basic tasks using computers and over-marketing it as AI. Meanwhile, I’ve made AI work in places it’s not supposed to, solving problems we didn’t even know how to articulate using traditional means.

For instance, several years ago, my colleagues at MIT and I posited that if we could know how a cell’s DNA was being read it would bring us a step closer to designing personalized therapies. Instead of constraining a computer to use only what humans already knew about biology, we instructed an AI to think about DNA as an economic market in which DNA regulators and genes competed—and let the computer build its own model of that, which it learned from data. Then the AI used its own model to simulate genetic behavior in seconds on a laptop, with the same accuracy that took traditional DNA circuit models days of calculations with a supercomputer.

At present, the best AIs are laboriously built and limited to one narrow problem at a time. Competition revolves around research into increasingly sophisticated and general AI toolkits, not yet AIs. The aspiration is to create AIs that partner with humans across multiple domains—like in IBM’s ads for Watson. IBM’s aim is to turn what today’s just a powerful toolkit into an infrastructure for businesses.

The larger objective

The larger objective for AI is to create AIs that partner with us to build new narratives around problems we care to solve and can’t today—new kinds of jobs follow from the ability to solve new problems.

That’s a huge space of opportunity, but it’s difficult to explore with all these myths about AI swirling around. Let’s dispel some more of them.

Myth 2: Robots are AI. Not true.A worker guides the first shipment of an IBM System Z mainframe computer in Poughkeepsie, New York, U.S. March 6, 2015. Picture taken March 6, 2015. Jon Simon/IBM/Handout via REUTERS A worker guides the first shipment of an IBM System Z mainframe computer in PoughkeepsieThomson Reuters

Industrial and other robots, drones, self-organizing shelves in warehouses, and even the machines we’ve sent to Mars are all just machines programmed to move.

Myth 3: Big Data and Analytics are AI. Wrong again. These, along with data mining, pattern recognition, and data science, are all just names for cool things computers do based on human-created models. They may be complex, but they’re not AI. Data are like your senses: just because smells can trigger memories, it doesn’t make smelling itself intelligent, and more smelling is hardly the path to more intelligence.

Myth 4: Machine Learning and Deep Learning are AI. Nope. These are just tools for programming computers to react to complex patterns—like how your email filters out spam by “learning” what millions of users have identified as spam. They’re part of the AI toolkit like an auto mechanic has wrenches. They look smart—sometimes scarily so, like when a computer beats an expert at the game Go—but they’re certainly not AI.

Myth 5: Search engines are AI. They look smart, too, but they’re not AI. You can now search information in ways once impossible, but you—the searcher—contribute the intelligence. All the computer does is spot patterns from what you search and recommend others do the same. It doesn’t actually know any of what it finds; as a system, it’s as dumb as they come.

In my own AI work, I’ve made use of AI whenever a problem we could imagine solving with science became too complex for science’s reductive approaches. That’s because AI allows us to ask questions that are not easy to ask in traditional scientific “terms.” For instance, more than 20 years ago, my colleagues and I used AI to invent a technology to locate cellphones in an emergency faster and more accurately than GPS ever could. Traditional science didn’t help us solve the problem of finding you, so we worked on building an AI that would learn to figure out where you are so emergency services can find you.

By the way, our AI solution actually created jobs.

AI’s most important attribute isn’t processing scores of data or executing programs—all computers do that—but rather learning to fulfill tasks we humans cannot so we can reach further. It’s a partnership: we humans guide AI and learn to ask better questions.

Swisher is right, though: we ought to figure out what the next jobs are, but not by agonizing over how much some current job is creative or repetitive. I would note that the AI toolkit has already created hundreds of thousands of jobs of all kinds—Uber, Facebook, Google, Apple, Amazon, and so on.

Our choice is continuing the dystopian AI narrative about the future of jobs. or having a different conversation about making the AI we want happen so we can address problems that cannot be solved by traditional means, for which the science we have is inadequate, incomplete, or nonexistent—and imagining and creating some new jobs along the way.

Luis Perez-Brava is the head of MIT’s Innovation Program and a Research Scientist at MIT’s School of Engineering. He recently published ‘Innovating: A Doer’s Manifesto for Starting from a Hunch, Prototyping Problems, Scaling Up, and Learning to Be Productively Wrong.’  

How Artificial Intelligence benefits companies and ups their game

Technology, Artificial Intelligence, AI
A file photo of workers at the General Electric Co. (GE ) energy plant in Greenville, South Carolina, US. GE uses machine learning to predict required maintenance for its large industrial machines. Photo: Bloomberg

Jayanth Kolla

After decades of false starts, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is already pervasive in our lives. Although invisible to most people, features such as custom search engine results, social media alerts and notifications, e-commerce recommendations and listings are powered by AI-based algorithms and models. AI is fast turning out to be the key utility of the technology world, much as electricity evolved a century ago. Everything that we formerly electrified, we will now cognitize.

AI’s latest breakthrough is being propelled by machine learning—a subset of AI which includes abstruse techniques that enable machines to improve at tasks through learning and experience.Although in its infancy, the rapid development and impending AI-led technology revolution are expected to impact all the industries and companies (both big and small) in the respective ecosystem/value chains. We are already witnessing examples of how AI-powered new entrants are able to take on incumbents and win—as Uber and Lyft have done to the cab-hailing industry.

Currently, deployed key AI-based solutions, across industry verticals, include:

Predictive analytics, diagnostics and recommendations: Predictive analytics has been in the mainstream for a while, but deep learning changes and improves the whole game. Predictive analytics can be described as the ‘everywhere electricity’—it is not so much a product as it is a new capability that can be added to all the processes in a company. Be it a national bank, a key supplier of raw material and equipment for leading footwear brands, or a real estate company, companies across every industry vertical are highly motivated to adopt AI-based predictive analytics because of proven returns on investment.

Japanese insurance firm Fukoku Mutual Life Insurance is replacing its 34-strong workforce with IBM’s Watson Explorer AI. The AI system calculates insurance policy payouts, which according to the firm’s estimates is expected to increase productivity by 30% and save close to £1 million a year. Be it user-based collaborative filtering used by Spotify and Amazon to content-based collaborative filtering used by Pandora or Frequency Itemset Mining used by Netflix, digital media firms have been using various machine learning algorithms and predictive analytics models for their recommendation engines.

In e-commerce, with thousands of products and multiple factors that impact their sales, an estimate of the price to sales ratio or price elasticity is difficult. Dynamic price optimization using machine learning—correlating pricing trends with sales trends using an algorithm, then aligning with other factors such as category management and inventory levels—is used by almost every leading e-commerce player from Amazon.com to Blibli.com.

Chatbots and voice assistants: Chatbots have evolved mainly on the back of internet messenger platforms, and have hit an inflection point in 2016. As of mid-2016, more than 11,000 Facebook Messenger bots and 20,000 Kik bots had been launched. As of April 2017, 100,000 bots were created for Facebook Messenger alone in the first year of the platform. Currently, chatbots are rapidly proliferating across both the consumer and enterprise domains, with capabilities to handle multiple tasks including shopping, travel search and booking, payments, office management, customer support, and task management.

Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) launched Luvo, a natural language processing AI bot which answers RBS, Natwest and Ulster bank customer queries and perform simple banking tasks like money transfers.

If Luvo is unable to find the answer it will pass the customer over to a member of staff. While RBS is the first retail bank in the UK to launch such a service, others such as Sweden’s SwedBank and Spain’s BBVA have created similar virtual assistants.

Technology companies and digital natives are investing in and deploying the technology at scale, but widespread adoption among less digitally mature sectors and companies is lagging. However, the current mismatch between AI investment and adoption has not stopped people from imagining a future where AI transforms businesses and entire industries.

The National Health Services (NHS) in the UK has implemented an AI-powered chatbot on the 111 non-emergency helpline. Being trialled in North London, its 1.2 million residents can opt for a chatbot rather than talking to a person on the 111 helpline. The chatbot encourages patients to enter their symptoms into the app. It will, then, consult a large medical database and users will receive tailored responses based on the information they have entered.

Image recognition, processing and diagnostics: On an average, it takes about 19 million images of cats for the current Deep Learning algorithms to recognize an image of a cat, unaided. Compared to the progress of natural language processing solutions, computer vision-based AI solutions are still in developmental stage, primarily due to the lack of large, structured data sets and the significant amount of computational power required to train the algorithms.

That said, we are witnessing adoption of image recognition in healthcare and financial services sectors. Israel-based Zebra Medical Systems uses deep learning techniques in radiology. It has amassed a huge training set of medical images along with categorization technology that will allow computers to predict diseases accurately better than humans.

Chinese technology companies Alipay (the mobile payments arm of Alibaba) and WeChat Pay (the mobile payments unit of Tencent) use advanced mobile-based image and facial recognition techniques for loan disbursement, financing, insurance claims authentication, fraud management and credit history ratings of both retail and enterprise customers.

General Electric (GE) is an example of a large multi-faceted conglomerate that has adopted AI and ML successfully at a large scale, across various functions, to evolve from industrial and consumer products and financial services firm to a ‘digital industrial’ company with a strong focus on the ‘Industrial Internet’. GE uses machine-learning approaches to predict required maintenance for its large industrial machines. The company achieves this by continuously monitoring and learning from new data of its machines ‘digital twins’ (a digital, cloud-based replica of its actual machines in the field) and modifying predictive models over time. Beyond, industrial equipment, the company has also used AI and ML effectively for integrating business data. GE used machine-learning software to identify and normalize differential pricing in its supplier data across business verticals, leading to savings of $80 million.

GE’s successful acquisition and integration of innovative AI startups such as “SmartSignal” (acquired in 2011) to provide supervised learning models for remote diagnostics, “Wise.io” (acquired in 2016) for unsupervised deep learning capabilities and its in-house the data scientists, and of “Bit Stew” (another 2016 acquisition) to integrate data from multiple sensors in industrial equipment has enabled the company to evolve as a leading conglomerate in the AI business.

Industry sector-wise adoption of AI: Sector-by-sector adoption of AI is highly uneven currently, reflecting many characteristics of digital adoption on a broader scale. According to the McKinsey Global Index survey, released in June, larger companies and industries that adopted digital technologies in the past are more likely to adopt AI. For them, AI is the next wave. Other than online and IT companies, which are early adopters and proponents of various AI technologies, banks, financial services and healthcare are the leading non-core technology verticals that are adopting AI. According to the McKinsey survey, there is also clear evidence that early AI adopters are driven to employ AI solutions in order to grow revenue and market share, and the potential for cost reduction is a secondary idea.

AI, thus, can go beyond changing business processes to changing entire business models with winner-takes-all dynamics. Firms that are waiting for the AI dust to settle down risk being left behind.

The author is Founder and Partner of digital technologies research and advisory firm, Convergence Catalyst.

A Blueprint for Coexistence with Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence, WOOLZIAN/ISTOCK, Jobs, Wired
Image Credit: WOOLZIAN/ISTOCK
  • BACKCHANNEL       (original post) 07.12.17       06:50 AM

For most of my adult life, I have been maniacally focused on my work. I would answer emails instantly during the day, and even get up twice each night to ensure that all the emails were answered. Yes, I would spend time with my family members—but just so they didn’t complain, and not an hour more.

Then in September 2013, I was diagnosed with fourth-stage lymphoma. I faced the real possibility that my remaining time on Earth would be measured in months. As terrifying as that was, one of my strongest feelings was an instant, irretrievable, and painful regret. As Bronnie Ware’s book  about regrets of people on their deathbeds all too accurately describes, I was wracked with remorse over not spending more time sharing love with the people I cared about most.

I am now in remission, so I can write this piece. I am spending much more time with my family. I moved closer to my mother. Whether on business or for pleasure, I travel with my wife. Formerly, when my grown kids came home, I would take two or three days off from work to see them. Now I take two or three weeks. I spend weekends traveling with my best friends. I took my company on a one-week vacation to Silicon Valley—their Mecca. I meet with young people who send me questions on Facebook. I have reached out to people I offended years ago and asked for their forgiveness and friendship.

This near-death experience has not only changed my life and priorities, but also altered my view of artificial intelligence—the field that captured my selfish…Continue Reading

Article Source: https://www.wired.com/story/a-blueprint-for-coexistence-with-artificial-intelligence/

How artificial intelligence is revolutionizing healthcare

artificial intelligence, healthcare, technology
Image source: thenextweb.com

by — 5 weeks ago in ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE

There’s currently a shortage of over seven million physicians, nurses and other health workers worldwide, and the gap is widening. Doctors are stretched thin — especially in underserved areas — to respond to the growing needs of the population.

Meanwhile, training physicians and health workers is historically an arduous process that requires years of education and experience.

Fortunately, artificial intelligence can help the healthcare sector to overcome present and future challenges. Here’s how AI algorithms and software are improving the quality and availability of healthcare services.

AI health assistants

One of the most basic yet efficient use cases of artificial intelligence is to optimize the clinical process. Traditionally, when patients feel ill, they go to the doctor, who checks their vital signs, asks questions, and gives a prescription. Now, AI assistants can cover a large part of clinical and outpatient services, freeing up doctors’ time to attend to more critical cases.

Your.MD is an AI-powered mobile app that provides basic healthcare. The chatbot asks users about…Continue reading

Article source: https://thenextweb.com/artificial-intelligence/2017/04/13/artificial-intelligence-revolutionizing-healthcare/#.tnw_6h2qZTV0

DiGiorno pizza used facial recognition to show how much people love pizza

screen-shot-2017-05-03-at-11-43-13-am-3

by Tanya Dua
Digiday

Everyone loves pizza — or, at least, that’s what DiGiorno wants to prove.

The Nestlé frozen pizza brand recently used facial recognition and emotion tracking software to measure people’s reactions to pizza. For the stunt, DiGiorno enlisted 24 everyday people to host three separate parties with friends and family at a loft in New York City.

At each of the parties, more than 40 high-resolution cameras were installed to use facial recognition and emotion-tracking software to gauge guests’ reactions. The footage was then processed using custom software to map the attendees’ expressions in response to the pizza’s smell and sight.

The recorded video footage was broken down to images at five-second intervals, and then processed through the facial analysis software. People’s emotional patterns — including joy, sorrow, anger, fear and surprise — were calculated with Google’s Vision API on a scale of 0-4. The joy scores were averaged on a per minute basis (only by participants that displayed it) and subtracted from the initial level of joy that they felt upon arriving at the party to calculate the joy they felt in reaction to each stimulus.

The results showed that at each…Continue reading

Article source: https://digiday.com/marketing/digiorno-pizza-used-facial-recognition-show-much-people-love-pizza/
Original Post dated May 3, 2017

Digital Footprints Are Privacy Busters

 

Digital Footprint, Internet Privacy, Internet Security, Kym Gordon Moore

Digital Footprints Are Privacy Busters
By Kym Gordon Moore

Did you know that unlike footprints in the sand that can be washed away with the tide, your digital footprint is here to stay forever? Just because you have the freedom to voice your opinions or post anything you wish to online, it doesn’t mean that you have to or should. At the click of your mouse or keypad, the Internet can instantly give us a vast amount of information we would never be able to digest, which could be true or false.

Cyber shadowing, digital shadowing or digital footprints as we commonly know it, is data created when you perform any action over the Internet or through your mobile devices. Your activity can be tracked to see what site or link you came from before you arrived at a particular website, the length of your retention and where you go afterwards. This digital tracking system can collect data wherever you left a trail, as you traveled on the World Wide Web. Data that is collected about you is typically used by companies for sales opportunities, analytics or marketing communication purposes. On the other hand, we are familiar with the antics hackers impose on our online experience that creates much aggravation.

When volunteering to create a user ID through which you share your information with… Continue reading

Article Source:
http://EzineArticles.com/?Digital-Footprints-Are-Privacy-Busters&id=8531999

The AI Perspective: Artificial or Authentic Intelligence

Robot, Technology, Universe, Innovation, Vision

What does the view of your technological universe look like? Is it the final frontier or a futuristic panorama? We have been saturated with so many versions of what artificial intelligence embodies. Should we fear AI or can we embrace it with healthy, human, authentic intelligence?